(except consonant shifts)
(except word order studies)
German citizen, unmarried, one daughter (born 1966)
Member of Rotary Club Munich International
Paper given at the Rotary Club: "English – a German dialect?"
|David Restle and Dietmar Zaefferer,
|Sounds and systems: Studies in structure and change: A festschrift for Theo Vennemann (Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs, 141). Berlin (Mouton de Gruyter).|
Introduction, lecture, and discussion
(duration ca. 75 minutes).
Fast internet connection required (DSL or faster).
Handout with transparencies and figures (48 pages)
(ca. 3.9 MB)
|Theo Vennemann (2013)||"Concerning myself ", in: Robert Mailhammer (ed.), Lexical and structural etymology: Beyond word histories (Studies in Language Change, 11), Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 121-146.|
|Theo Vennemann (2013)||"The mediae (b d g) in Punic and in the futhark", see Section "Runology".|
|Theo Vennemann (2009)||"I and U: Glide accretion in Ubian, English, and Celtic", Anglia 127, 208-237.|
|Theo Vennemann (2000)||"From quantity to syllable cuts: On so-called lengthening in the Germanic languages", Italian Journal of Linguistics / Rivista di Linguistica 12, 251-282.|
|Theo Vennemann (2000)||"Triple-cluster reduction in Germanic: Etymology without sound laws?", Historische Sprachwissenschaft (Historical Linguistics) 113, 239-258.|
and Theo Vennemann (1996)
|"Der finnische Stufenwechsel und das Vernersche Gesetz", Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 118, 163-182.|
|Theo Vennemann (1995)||"Der Zusammenbruch der Quantität im Spätmittelalter und sein Einfluß auf die Metrik", in: Hans Fix, ed., Quantitätsproblematik und Metrik: Greifswalder Symposion zur germanischen Grammatik (Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik, 42), Amsterdam (Rodopi), 185-223.|
|Theo Vennemann (1993)||"On the justification of assumed prehistoric sound changes", in: L. Hovsepian, N. Parnasian and S. Simonian, eds., The Second International Symposium on Armenian Linguistics (21-23 September 1987): Proceedings, Eriwan (Armenian Academy Press), 187-207.|
|Theo Vennemann (1989)||"Der Ursprung der Baiern in sprachwissenschaftlicher Sicht", in: Gerhard Sitzmann, eds., Jahresberichte der Stiftung Aventinum (Abensberg) 3, 5-27.|
|Theo Vennemann (1989)||"Indo-European consonant shifts - algebra, arithmetic, or normal science?", in: Theo Vennemann, ed., The new sound of Indo-European: Essays in phonological reconstruction (Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs, 41), Berlin (Mouton de Gruyter), 231-244.|
|Theo Vennemann (1989)||"Reply to Claude Boisson's Remarks", in: Theo Vennemann, ed., The new sound of Indo-European: Essays in phonological reconstruction (Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs, 41), Berlin (Mouton de Gruyter), 227.|
|Theo Vennemann (1989)||"Phonological and morphological consequences of the 'glottalic theory'", in: Theo Vennemann, ed., The new sound of Indo-European: Essays in phonological reconstruction (Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs, 41), Berlin (Mouton de Gruyter), 107-115.|
|Theo Vennemann (1989)||"Preface", in: Theo Vennemann, ed., The new sound of Indo-European: Essays in phonological reconstruction (Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs, 41), Berlin (Mouton de Gruyter), ix-xix.|
|Theo Vennemann (1988)||"Systems and changes in Early Germanic phonology: A search for hidden identities", in: Daniel G. Calder and T. Craig Christy, eds., Germania: Comparative studies in the Old Germanic languages and literatures, Woodbridge, Suffolk (D. S. Brewer), 45-65.|
|Theo Vennemann (1987)||"Muta cum Liquida: Worttrennung und Syllabierung im Gotischen: Mit einem Anhang zur Worttrennung in der Pariser Handschrift der althochdeutschen Isidor-übersetzung", Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur 116, 165-204.|
|Theo Vennemann (1986)||"Syllable-based sound changes in Early Armenian", Annual of Armenian Linguistics 7, 27-43.|
|Theo Vennemann (1985)||"Phonologically conditioned morphological change: Exceptions to Sievers' Law in Gothic", in: Edmund Gussmann, ed., Phonomorphology: Studies in the interaction of phonology and morphology, Lublin (Katholische Universität Lublin), 193-219.|
and Theo Vennemann (1985)
|"Die niederdeutschen Grundlagen des neuhochdeutschen Lautsystems", Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur (Tübingen) 107, 1-20, 157-173.|
|Robert W. Murray
and Theo Vennemann (1983)
|"Sound change and syllable structure [: Problems] in Germanic phonology", Language 59, 514-528.|
|Robert W. Murray
and Theo Vennemann (1982)
|"Syllable contact change in Germanic, Greek and Sidamo", Klagenfurter Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 8, 321-349.|
|Theo Vennemann (1979)||"Grassmann's Law, Bartholomae's Law and linguistic methodology", in: Irmengard Rauch and Gerald F. Carr, eds., Linguistic Method: Essays in Honor of Herbert Penzl, Den Haag (Mouton), 557-584.|
|Theo Vennemann (1972)||"Phonetic detail in assimilation: Problems in Germanic phonology", Language 48, 863-892.|
|Theo Vennemann (1972)||"Sound change and markedness theory: On the history of the German consonant system", in: Robert P. Stockwell and Ronald K. S. Macaulay, eds., Linguistic change and generative theory: Essays from the UCLA Conference on Historical Linguistics in the Perspective of Transformational Theory, February 1969, Bloomington (Indiana University Press), 230-274.|
|Theo Vennemann (1971)||"The phonology of Gothic vowels", Language 47, 90-132.|
|Theo Vennemann (2008)||"Lombards and Lautverschiebung: A unified account of the High Germanic Consonant Shift", Sprachwissenschaft 33, 213-256.|
|Theo Vennemann (2006)||"Grimm's Law and loanwords", Transactions of the Philological Society 104, 129-166.|
|Theo Vennemann (1994)||"Dating the division between High and Low Germanic: A summary of arguments", in: Toril Swan, Endre Mørck and Olaf Jansen Westvik, eds., Language change and language structure: Older Germanic languages in a comparative perspective (Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs, 73), Berlin (Mouton de Gruyter), 271-303.|
|Theo Vennemann (1991)||"Zur relativen Chronologie von Lautwandel und Wortentlehnung: Die Hochgermanische Lautverschiebung und ahd. pforta, churt und
|Theo Vennemann (1991)||"The relative chronology of the High Germanic Consonant Shift and the West Germanic Anaptyxis", Diachronica 8, 45-57.|
|Theo Vennemann (1988)||"Die innergermanische Lautverschiebung und die Entstehung der germanischen und deutschen Dialekte", in: Mohammad Ali Jazayery and Werner Winter, eds., Languages and cultures: Studies in honor of Edgar C. Polomé (Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs, 36), Berlin (Mouton de Gruyter), 749-761.|
|Theo Vennemann (1987)||"Betrachtung zum Alter der hochgermanischen Lautverschiebung", in: Rolf Bergmann, Heinrich Tiefenbach and Lothar Voetz, eds., Althochdeutsch, vol. I: Grammatik - Glossen und Texte, Heidelberg (Carl Winter), 29-53.|
|Theo Vennemann (1985)||"The bifurcation theory of the Germanic and German consonant shifts: Synopsis and some further thoughts", in: Jacek Fisiak, ed., Papers from the 6th International Conference on Historical Linguistics (Amsterdam Studies in the Theory and History of Linguistic Science, Series IV: Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, 34), [Amsterdam] (John Benjamins), 527-547.|
|Theo Vennemann (1984)||"Hochgermanisch und Niedergermanisch: Die Verzweigungstheorie der germanisch-deutschen Lautverschiebungen", Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur (Tübingen) 106, 1-45.|
|Theo Vennemann (1997)||"The Development of Reduplicating Verbs in Germanic", in: Irmengard Rauch and Gerald F. Carr, eds., Insights in Germanic linguistics II: Classic and contemporary (Trends in Linguistics, Studies and Monographs, 94), Berlin (Mouton de Gruyter), 297-336.|
|Theo Vennemann (1994)||"Zur Entwicklung der reduplizierenden Verben im Germanischen", Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 116, 167-221.|
|Theo Vennemann (2003)||"Syntax und Sprachkontakt: Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der indogermanischen Sprachen des Nordwestens". See section "Langages in prehistoric Europe".|
|Theo Vennemann (1984)||"Verb second, verb late, and the brace construction in Germanic: A discussion", in: Jacek Fisiak, ed., Historical syntax (Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs, 23), Berlin (Mouton), 627-636.|
|Theo Vennemann (1982)||"Deutsche, englische und koreanische Wortstellung aus typologischer Sicht", Zeitschrift für deutsche Sprache und Literatur (Seoul), 17, 7-35.|
|Theo Vennemann (1980)||"Témata, subjekty a slovosled: Od SXV k SVX pres TVX", in: Eva Hajicová et al., eds., Studie z transformacní gramatiky III: Nekteré neortodoxní smery (Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Fakulta Matematicko-Fyzikální), Prague (Státní pedagogické nakladatelství), 198-233. [Translation of "Topics, subjects, and word order: From SXV to SVX via TVX", 1974.]|
|Theo Vennemann (1977)||"Konstituenz und Dependenz in einigen neueren Grammatiktheorien", Sprachwissenschaft 2, 259-301.|
and Ray Harlow (1977)
|"Categorial grammar and consistent basic VX serialization", Theoretical Linguistics 4, 227-254.|
|Theo Vennemann (1976)||"Categorial grammar and the order of meaningful elements", in: Alphonse Juilland, ed., Linguistic Studies Offered to Joseph Greenberg on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, Saratoga, California (Anma Libri), 615-634.|
|Theo Vennemann (1975)||"An explanation of drift", in: Charles N. Li, ed., Word Order and Word Order Change, Austin (University of Texas Press), 269-305.|
|Theo Vennemann (1975)||"Analogy in generative grammar: The origin of word order", in: Luigi Heilmann, ed., Proceedings of the Eleventh International Congress of Linguists, Bologna-Florence, Aug. 28 - Sept. 2, 1972, vol. II, Bologna (Società editrice il Mulino), 79-83.|
|Theo Vennemann (1974)||"Language type and word order", Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Philologica 5, Linguistica Generalica I, 219-229.|
|Theo Vennemann (1974)||"Theoretical word order studies: Results and problems", Papiere zur Linguistik 7, 5-25.|
|Theo Vennemann (1974)||"Zur Theorie der Wortstellungsveränderung: Von SXV zu SVX über TVX", in: Gudula Dinser, ed., Zur Theorie der Sprachveränderung, mit Beiträgen von Hoenigswald, Kiparsky, Labov, Lenneberg, Meillet, Stern, Vennemann, Kronberg/Ts. (Scriptor), 265-314. [Translation of "Topics, subjects, and word order: From SXV to SVX via TVX", 1974.]|
|Theo Vennemann (1974)||"Topics, subjects, and word order: From SXV to SVX via TVX", in: John Anderson and Charles Jones, eds., Historical Linguistics: Proceedings of the First International Congress of Historical Linguistics, Edinburgh, September 1973, vol. II, Amsterdam (North-Holland), 339-376.|
|Christian Strömsdörfer and Theo Vennemann (1993, 1995)||"Ziele der syntaktischen Typologie", in: Joachim Jacobs, Arnim von Stechow, Wolfgang Sternefeld and Theo Vennemann, eds., Syntax: Ein internationales Handbuch zeitgenössischer Forschung / An International Handbook of Contemporary Research, 2 vols. (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft / Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science, 9.1-2), Berlin (Walter de Gruyter), II. 1031-1043.|
|Theo Vennemann (1985)||"Linguistic typologies in historical linguistics", in: Luciano Agostiniani et al., eds., Linguistica storica e cambiamento linguistico: Atti del XVI Congresso Internazionale di Studi, Firence 7-9 maggio 1982 (Pubblicazioni della Società di Linguistica Italiana, 23), Rom (Bulzoni), 87-91.|
|Theo Vennemann (1985)||"Universals, preferences, typologies: Definitions and delimitations", in: Ursula Pieper and Gerhard Stickel, eds., Studia Linguistica et Diachronica: Werner Winter sexagenario anno MCMLXXXIII gratis animis ab eius collegis, amicis discipulisque oblata, Berlin (Mouton de Gruyter), 861-880.|
|Theo Vennemann (1984)||"Typology, universals, and change of language", in: Jacek Fisiak, ed., Historical syntax (Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs, 23), Berlin (Mouton), 593-612.|
|Theo Vennemann (1982)||"Agglutination - Isolation - Flexion? Zur Stimmigkeit typologischer Parameter", in: Siglinde Heinz and Ulrich Wandruszka, eds., Fakten und Theorien: Beiträge zur romanischen und allgemeinen Sprachwissenschaft: Festschrift für Helmut Stimm zum 65. Geburtstag, Tübingen (Gunter Narr), 327-334.|
|Theo Vennemann (1982)||"What is a linguistic typology?" Studies in Linguistics (Taegu Linguistic Society, Korea), 2, 3-44.|
|Theo Vennemann (1987)||"Tempora und Zeitrelation im Standarddeutschen", Sprachwissenschaft 12, 234-249.|
|Theo Vennemann (1982)||"Remarks on grammatical relations", in: The Linguistic Society of Korea, ed., Linguistics in the Morning Calm: Selected papers from SICOL-1981, Seoul (Hanshin), 233-267.|
|Theo Vennemann (1978)||"Tautologies and contradictions: Problems with comparison", in: Dietrich Hartmann, Hansjürgen Linke and Otto Ludwig, eds., Sprache in Gegenwart und Geschichte: Festschrift für Heinrich Matthias Heinrichs zum 65. Geburtstag, Köln (Böhlau), 209-214.|
and Theo Vennemann (1976)
|"Italian unstressed pronouns and universal syntax", Italian Linguistics 2, 37-43. [Corresponds to chapters 2, 3, and 4 of Semantic Structures, 1972.]|
|Theo Vennemann (1975)||"Topics, sentence accent, ellipsis: A proposal for their formal treatment", in: Edward L. Keenan, ed., Formal Semantics of Natural Language: Papers from a Colloquium Sponsored by the King's College Research Centre, Cambridge, Cambridge (Cambridge University Press), 313-328.|
and Theo Vennemann (1974)
|"I pronomi atoni in italiano e la teoria universale della sintassi", in: Mario Medici and Antonella Sangregorio, eds., Fenomeni morfologici e sintattici nell'italiano contemporaneo: Atti del sesto congresso internazionale di studi, Roma, 4-6 settembre 1972, vol. I (Publicazioni della Società di Linguistica Italiana, 7.1.2), Rome (Bulzoni), 301-307.|
and Theo Vennemann (1973)
|"Bemerkungen zu dem Buch Semantic structures", Linguistische Berichte 24, 75-82.|
|Theo Vennemann (1973)||"Warum gibt es Syntax? Syntaktische Konstruktionsprinzipien in logischer und psychologischer Sicht", Zeitschrift für Germanistische Linguistik 1, 257-283.|
|Theo Vennemann (1973)||"Explanation in Syntax", in: John Kimball, ed., Syntax and Semantics 2, New York (Seminar Press), 1-50.|
and Theo Vennemann (1972)
|"Relative adjectives and comparison", UCLA Papers in Syntax 2, 107-197.|
and Theo Vennemann (1972)
|"The grammar of relative adjectives and of comparison", Linguistische Berichte 20, 19-32. [Shortened version of "Relative adjectives and comparison", UCLA Papers in Syntax 2 (1972), 107-197.]|
and Theo Vennemann (1975)
|"The grammar of relative adjectives and of comparison", in: Thomas Storer and David Winter, eds., Formal aspects of cognitive processes (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 22), Berlin (Springer), 168-185. [Same as "The grammar of relative adjectives and of comparison", Linguistische Berichte 20 (1972), 19-32.]|
and Theo Vennemann
|Semantic Structures: A study in the relation between semantics and syntax (Athenäum-Skripten Linguistik, 9), Frankfurt am Main (Athenäum).|
|Theo Vennemann (2012)||"Structural complexity of consonant clusters: A phonologist's view", in: Philip Hoole, Lasse Bombien, Marianne Pouplier, Christine Mooshammer and Barbara Kühnert (eds.), Consonant clusters and structural complexity (Interface Explorations, 26), Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 11-31.|
|Theo Vennemann (2010)||"Die Silbe in Akzent und Rhytmus", in: Die Silbe im Anfangsunterricht Deutsch: Festschrift zum zehnjährigen Jubiläum des Lehrgangs ABC der Tiere - Silbenmethode mit Silbentrenner , Offenburg: Mildenberger, 85-106.|
|David Restle and Theo Vennemann (2001)||"Silbenstruktur", in: Martin Haspelmath, Ekkehard König, Wulf Oesterreicher und Wolfgang Raible, eds., Sprachtypologie und sprachliche Universalien. Ein Internationales Handbuch / Language Typology and Language Universals. An International Handbook, 2 vols. (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft / Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science), Berlin (Walter de Gruyter), II. 1310-1336.|
|Theo Vennemann (1998)||"Prosodie und Wortgewinnung", in: Matthias Butt and Nanna Fuhrhop, eds., Variation und Stabilität in der Wortstruktur: Untersuchungen zu Entwicklung, Erwerb und Varietäten des Deutschen und anderer Sprachen (Germanistische Linguistik 141-142). Hildesheim (Georg Olms), 225-244.|
|Theo Vennemann (1994)||"Universelle Nuklearphonologie mit epiphänomenaler Silbenstruktur", in: Karl Heinz Ramers, Heinz Vater and Henning Wode, eds., Universale phonologische Prozesse und Strukturen (Lingustische Arbeiten, 310), Tübingen (Max Niemeyer), 7-54.|
|Theo Vennemann (1991)||"Skizze der deutschen Wortprosodie", Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 10, 86-111.|
|Theo Vennemann (1991)||"Syllable structure and syllable cut prosodies in Modern Standard German", in: Pier Marco Bertinetto, Michael Kenstowicz and Michele Loporcaro, eds., Certamen Phonologicum II: Papers from the 1990 Cortona Phonology Meeting, Torino (Rosenberg & Sellier), 211-243.|
|Theo Vennemann (1990)||"Syllable structure and simplex accent in Modern Standard German", in: Michael Ziolkowski, Manuela Noske and Karen Deaton, eds., Papers from the Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society 26, vol. II: The Parasession, Chicago (Chicago Linguistic Society), 399-412.|
|Theo Vennemann (1988)||Preference laws for syllable structure and the explanation of sound change: With special reference to German, Germanic, Italian, and Latin, Berlin (Mouton de Gruyter).|
|Theo Vennemann (1988)||"The rule dependence of syllable structure", in: Caroline Duncan-Rose and Theo Vennemann, eds., On language: Rhetorica, Phonologica, Syntactica: A Festschrift for Robert P. Stockwell from his friends and colleagues, London (Routledge), 257-283.|
|Theo Vennemann (1986)||Neuere Entwicklungen in der Phonologie, Berlin (Mouton de Gruyter).|
|Theo Vennemann (1986)||"Ruckümläut", in: Dieter Kastowsky and Aleksander Szwadesh, eds., Linguistics across historical and geographical boundaries: In honour of Jacek Fisiak on the occasion of his fiftieth birthday, vol. I: Linguistic theory and historical linguistics (Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs, 32), Berlin (Mouton de Gruyter), 701-723.|
|Theo Vennemann (1985)||"Preference laws for syllable structure and the explanation of sound change: With special reference to German, Germanic, Italian, and Latin", Phonology Workshop of the Linguistic Society of Korea, ed., Papers in Phonology and Morphology III, Seoul (Pan Korea Corporation), 186-362. [Earlier version of Preference Laws, 1988]|
|Theo Vennemann (1982)||"Zur Silbenstruktur der deutschen Standardsprache", in: Theo Vennemann, ed., Silben, Segmente, Akzente: Referate zur Wort-, Satz- und Versphonologie anläßlich der vierten Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Sprachwissenschaft, Köln, 2. - 4. März, 1982 (Linguistische Arbeiten, 126), Tübingen (Max Niemeyer), 261-305.|
|Theo Vennemann (1982)||"Phonology as non-functional non-phonetics", in: Wolfgang Ullrich Dressler et al., eds., Phonologica 1980: Akten der Vierten Internationalen Phonologie-Tagung, Wien, 29. Juni - 2. Juli 1980 (Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft, 36), Innsbruck (Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck), 391-402.|
|Theo Vennemann (1980)||"Universalphonologie als partielle Sprachtheorie", in: Hans-Heinrich Lieb, ed., Oberflächensyntax und Semantik, Tübingen (Max Niemeyer), 125-133.|
|Theo Vennemann (1978)||"Universal syllabic phonology", Theoretical Linguistics 5, 175-215.|
|Theo Vennemann (1978)||"Rule inversion and lexical storage: The case of Sanskrit visarga", in: Jacek Fisiak, ed., Recent Developments in Historical Phonology, Den Haag (Mouton), 391-408.|
|Theo Vennemann (1978)||"Phonetic analogy and conceptual analogy", in: Philip Baldi and Ronald N. Werth, eds., Readings in Historical Phonology: Chapters in the Theory of Sound Change, University Park (Pennsylvania State University Press), 258-274. [Reprint of "Phonetic analogy and conceptual analogy", 1972.]|
and Theo Vennemann (1977)
|"über den Gebrauch von Variablen in phonologischen Regeln", in: Gaberell Drachman, ed., Akten der 2. Salzburger Frühlingstagung für Linguistik (Salzburger Beiträge zur Linguistik, 3), Tübingen (Gunter Narr), 179-195.|
|Theo Vennemann (1976)||"Vowel alternations in English, German and Gothic: Remarks on realism in: phonology", in: Muhammad Ali Jazayery, Edgar C. Polomé, and Werner Winter, eds., Linguistic and Literary Studies in Honor of Archibald A. Hill, vol. I: General and Theoretical Linguistics, Lisse (Peter de Ridder), 337-359.|
|Theo Vennemann (1974)||"Words and syllables in natural generative grammar", in: Anthony Bruck, Robert A. Fox, and Michael W. La Galy, eds., Papers from the Parasession on Natural Phonology, April 18, 1974, Chicago (Chicago Linguistic Society), 346-374.|
|Theo Vennemann (1974)||"Phonological concreteness in natural generative grammar", in: Roger W. Shuy and Charles-James N. Bailey, eds., Towards Tomorrow's Linguistics, Washington, D.C. (Georgetown University Press), 202-219.|
|Theo Vennemann (1974)||"Sanskrit ruki and the concept of a natural class", Linguistics 130, 91-97.|
|Theo Vennemann (1974)||"Restructuring", Lingua 33, 137-156.|
and Theo Vennemann (1973)
|"Phonetic features and phonological features", Lingua 32, 61-74.|
|Theo Vennemann (1973)||"Linguistics and phonetics", in: Renate Bartsch and Theo Vennemann, eds., Linguistics and neighboring disciplines (North-Holland Linguistic Series, 14), Amsterdam (North-Holland), 13-32. [Translation of "Linguistik und Phonetik", 1973.]|
|Theo Vennemann (1973)||"Linguistik und Phonetik", in: Renate Bartsch and Theo Vennemann, eds., Linguistik und Nachbarwissenschaften, Kronberg/Ts. (Scriptor), 21-43.|
|Theo Vennemann (1972)||"Phonetic analogy and conceptual analogy", in: Theo Vennemann and Terence H. Wilbur, eds., Schuchhardt, the Neogrammarians, and the transformational theory of phonological change: Four essays by Hugo Schuchhardt, Theo Vennemann, Terence H. Wilbur (Linguistische Forschungen, 26), Frankfurt am Main (Athenäum), 115-179.|
|Theo Vennemann (1972)||"Hugo Schuchhardt's theory of phonological change", in: Theo Vennemann and Terence H. Wilbur, eds., Schuchhardt, the Neogrammarians, and the transformational theory of phonological change: Four essays by Hugo Schuchhardt, Theo Vennemann, Terence H. Wilbur (Linguistische Forschungen, 26), Frankfurt am Main (Athenäum), 115-179.|
|Theo Vennemann (1972)||"Rule Inversion", Lingua 29, 209-242.|
|Theo Vennemann (1972)||"Phonological uniqueness in natural generative grammar", Glossa 6, 105-116.|
|Theo Vennemann (1972)||"On the theory of syllabic phonology", Linguistische Berichte 18, 1-18.|
and Peter Ladefoged (1971)
|"Phonetic features and phonological features", Working Papers in Phonetics (UCLA) 21, 13-24. [Prepublication of "Phonetic features and phonological features", 1973.]|
|Theo Vennemann (1971)||"The interpretation of phonological features in assimilation rules", Working Papers in Phonetics (UCLA) 19, 62-68. [Preliminary version of "Phonetic detail in assimilation [: [Problems] in Germanic phonology", 1972]|
|Theo Vennemann (1971)||"Language acquisition and phonological theory", Linguistics 70, 71-89.|
|Theo Vennemann (1970)||"The German velar nasal: A case for abstract phonology", Phonetica 22, 65-81.|
|Theo Vennemann (1968)||"Die Affrikaten in der generativen Phonologie des Deutschen", Phonetica 18, 65-76.|
|Theo Vennemann (1968)||German phonology (Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles), Ann Arbor, Michigan (University Microfilms).|
|Theo Vennemann (1999)||"Volksetymologie und Ortsnamenforschung: Begriffsbestimmung und Anwendung auf ausgewählte, überwiegend bayerische Toponyme", Beiträge zur Namenforschung, Neue Folge 34, 269-322. Reprinted in Europa Vasconica - Europa Semitica, chapter 24, with Abstract.|
and Theo Vennemann
|"Das Verhältnis des Sprachwandels zur Theorie der Sprachzustände", in: Joachim Jacobs, Arnim von Stechow, Wolfgang Sternefeld and Theo Vennemann, eds., Syntax: Ein internationales Handbuch zeitgenössischer Forschung / An International Handbook of Contemporary Research, 2 vols. (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft / Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science, 9.1-2), Berlin (Walter de Gruyter), II. 1126-1135.|
|Theo Vennemann (1992)||"Language universals: Endowment or inheritance?", Diachronica 9, 47-60.|
|Theo Vennemann (1993)||"Language change as language improvement", in: Charles Jones, ed., Historical linguistics: Problems and perspectives. London (Longman), 319-344. [Reprint of "Language change as language improvement", 1990.]|
|Theo Vennemann (1990)||"Language change as language improvement", in: Vincenzo Orioles, ed., Modelli esplicativi della diacronia linguistica: Atti del Convegno della SocietÃ Italiana di Glottologia, Pavia, 15-17 settembre 1988. Pisa (Giardini Editori e Stampatori), 11-35.|
|Theo Vennemann (1988)||"über Rekonstruktion und Rekonstruktionen in der historischen Sprachwissenschaft: Diskussionsbeitrag", in: Akten der 13. österreichischen Linguistentagung, Graz, 25. - 27. Oktober 1985 (Arbeiten aus der Abteilung "Vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft" Graz, 1), Graz (Leykam), 58-62.|
|Theo Vennemann (1983)||"Causality in language change: Theories of linguistic preferences as a basis for linguistic explanations", Folia Linguistica Historica 6, 5-26.|
|Theo Vennemann (1983)||"überlegungen zu einer Theorie der linguistischen Präferenzen", Klagenfurter Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 9, 262-292.|
and Theo Vennemann (1980)
|"Sprachtheorie", in: Hans Peter Althaus, Helmut Henne and Herbert Ernst Wiegand, eds., Lexikon der Germanistischen Linguistik, Tübingen (Max Niemeyer), 1st ed. 1973, 34-55; 2nd ed. 1980, 57-82.|
|Theo Vennemann (1976)||"Beiträge der neueren Linguistik zur Sprachgeschichtsschreibung", in: Sprachwandel und Sprachgeschichtsschreibung im Deutschen (Sprache der Gegenwart: Schriften des Instituts für Deutsche Sprache, 41), Düsseldorf (Schwann), 24-42.|
and Theo Vennemann (1973)
|"Linguistics", in: Renate Bartsch and Theo Vennemann, eds., Linguistics and neighboring disciplines (North-Holland Linguistic Series, 14), Amsterdam (North-Holland), 1-11. [Translation of "Linguistik", 1973.]|
and Theo Vennemann (1973)
|"Linguistik", in: Renate Bartsch and Theo Vennemann, eds., Linguistik und Nachbarwissenschaften, Kronberg/Ts. (Scriptor), 9-20.|
and Joachim Jacobs (1982)
|Sprache und Grammatik: Grundprobleme der linguistischen Sprachbeschreibung (Erträge der Forschung, 176), Darmstadt (Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft).|
and Theo Vennemann (1983)
|Grundzüge der Sprachtheorie: Eine linguistische Einführung, Tübingen (Max Niemeyer). [Reprint of Grundzüge der Sprachtheorie: Eine linguistische Einführung, 1982]|
and Theo Vennemann (1982)
|Grundzüge der Sprachtheorie: Eine linguistische Einführung, Tübingen (Max Niemeyer).|
|Theo Vennemann (i.E.)||Die niederrheinischen Matronennamen: Eine sprachgeschichtliche Betrachtung.|
|Theo Vennemann (1995)||"Morphologie der Matronennamen", in: Edith Marold and Christiane Zimmermann, eds., Nordwestgermanisch (Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde, Ergänzungsbände, 13), Berlin (Walter de Gruyter), 271-299.|
|Theo Vennemann (1995)||"Die ubischen Matronae Albiahenae und der gallo-römische Mercurius Cimiacinus: Mit einem Anhang über den Weißenburger Mercurius Pro[i]tium", Beiträge zur Namenforschung, Neue Folge 28, 271-300.|
|Theo Vennemann (1994)||"-|", Sprachwissenschaft 19, 235-270.|
|Theo Vennemann (2013)||"The mediae (b d g) in Punic and in the futhark", Sprachwissenschaft 38, 1-30.|
|Theo Vennemann (2013)||"Vowels in Punic and in Runic", Sprachwissenschaft, 38.2.|
|Theo Vennemann (2011)||"Griechisch, lateinisch, etruskisch, karthagisch? Zur Herkunft der Runen", in: Elvira Glaser, Anna Seiler und Michelle Waldispühl (eds.), LautSchriftSprache: Beiträge zur vergleichenden Graphematik. Zürich: Chronos, 47-81.|
|Theo Vennemann (2010)||"The source of the Ing rune and of the futhark", Sprachwissenschaft 35, 1-14.|
|Theo Vennemann (2009)||"Zur Reihung der Runen im älteren Futhark", in: Wilhelm Heizmann, Klaus Böldl, and Heinrich Beck (eds.), Analecta Septentrionalia: Beiträge zur nordgermanischen Kultur- und Literaturgeschichte (Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, 65), Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 834-863.|
|Theo Vennemann (2006)||"Germanische Runen und phönizisches Alphabet", Sprachwissenschaft 34, 367-429.|
and Theo Vennemann (1999)
|"The runic inscription of the Gandersheim casket", in: Regine Marth, ed., Das Gandersheimer Runenkästchen: Internationales Kolloquium, Braunschweig, 24.-26. März 1999 (Kolloquiumsbände des Herzog-Anton-Ulrich-Museums, 1), Braunschweig (Herzog-Anton-Ulrich-Museum), 111-120.|
|Theo Vennemann (1999)||"Note on the runic inscription of the Bergakker scabbard mount", in: Alfred Bammesberger and Gaby Waxenberger, eds., Pforzen und Bergakker: Neue Untersuchungen zu Runeninschriften (Historische Sprachforschung (Historical Linguistics), supplement 41), (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht), 152-156.|
|Theo Vennemann (1989)||"Wer hat das andere Horn gemacht? Zum Numerus von horna in der Gallehus-Inschrift", Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur (Tübingen) 111, 355-368.|
|Theo Vennemann (2011)||"Arabic loanwords in German(ic)", in: Lutz Etzard and RUdolf de Jong (eds.), Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, Leiden: Brill, Brill Online, 16 Juli 2011,
and Theo Vennemann, eds. (2003)
|Languages in Prehistoric Europe (Indogermanische Bibliothek, Dritte Reihe), Heidelberg (Carl Winter).|
Arnim von Stechow,
and Theo Vennemann, eds.
|Syntax: Ein internationales Handbuch zeitgenössischer Forschung / An International Handbook of Contemporary Research, 2 vols. (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft / Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science, 9.1-2), Berlin (Walter de Gruyter).|
|Theo Vennemann, ed. (1989)||The new sound of Indo-European: Essays in phonological reconstruction (Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs, 41), Berlin (Mouton de Gruyter).|
and Theo Vennemann, eds. (1988)
|On language: Rhetorica, Phonologica, Syntactica: A Festschrift for Robert P. Stockwell from his friends and colleagues, London (Routledge).|
|Theo Vennemann, ed. (1982)||Silben, Segmente, Akzente: Referate zur Wort-, Satz- und Versphonologie anläßlich der vierten Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Sprachwissenschaft, Köln, 2. - 4. März 1982 (Linguistische Arbeiten, 126), Tübingen (Max Niemeyer).|
|Theo Vennemann, ed.
|Studien zur Theoretischen Linguistik / Studies in Theoretical Linguistics (Münchner Universitätsschriften), München (Wilhelm Fink), 12 vols.|
and Theo Vennemann, eds. (1973)
|Linguistics and neighboring disciplines (North-Holland Linguistic Series, 14), Amsterdam (North-Holland). [English edition of Linguistik und Nachbarwissenschaften, 1973.]|
and Theo Vennemann, eds. (1973)
|Linguistik und Nachbarwissenschaften, Kronberg/Ts. (Scriptor).|
and Terence H. Wilbur, eds. (1972)
|Schuchhardt, the Neogrammarians, and the transformational theory of phonological change: Four essays by Hugo Schuchhardt, Theo Vennemann, Terence H. Wilbur (Linguistische Forschungen, 26), Frankfurt am Main (Athenäum).|
Several accounts of the history of the German language contend that about one third of the Proto-Germanic vocabulary has no Indo-European etymology. The categories cited as those in which these words cumulate are:
1. warfare and weapons (e.g. Waffe 'weapon', Schwert 'sword')
2. sea and navigation (e.g. See 'sea', Ufer 'bank, shore', Sturm 'tempest, storm')
3. law (e.g. Sühne 'atonement', stehlen 'to steal', Dieb 'thief')
4. state and communal life (e.g. Knecht 'servant', Volk 'division, people', Adel 'nobility')
5. husbandry, house building, settlement (e.g. Rost 'Grill', Fleisch 'meat', Haus 'house')
6. other expressions of advanced civilization (e.g. Zeit 'time')
7. names of animals and plants (e.g. Aal 'eel', Möwe 'gull', Bohne 'bean')
8. expressions from numerous spheres of daily life (e.g. trinken 'to drink', Leder 'leather')
The accounts suggest that these unexplained words may be owed to prehistoric substrates. By contrast, it is shown in this paper that three of the eight categories of words thus claimed to be prehistoric substratal borrowings, categories 1, 3, and 4, are owed to superstrates rather than to substrates in historical cases of language contact. Indeed it is precisely these three categories where superstratal loan-words are shown to abound in the following cases:
1. the superstratal Norman-French influence on Middle English,
2. the superstratal Franconian influence on the Gallo-Roman Latin of Northern France,
3. the superstratal Arabic influence on Spanish,
4. the superstratal Lombard and Ostrogoth influence on Northern Italian,
5. the superstratal Turkish influence on the languages of the Balkans,
6. the superstratal influence of Low German on Danish and Swedish as a consequence of the commercial dominance of the Hansa.
The conclusion drawn in this paper is that if the Germanic vocabulary lacking Indo-European etymologies consists of loan-words, then at least the loan-words in categories 1, 3, and 4 were borrowed from superstrates rather than from substrates. The paper concludes with speculations about the prehistoric settings in which such superstratal influence on Pre-Germanic would have been possible. The megalithic monuments of Western Europe are suggested to be the archaeological vestiges of the culture to which those superstratal languages belonged. No concrete proposal is made concerning the languages or language families from which the problematic vocabulary was borrowed, but Basque and Pictish are mentioned as testimony of a once non-Indo-European Western and Northern Europe.
This paper addresses the question of the languages that may have been spoken in prehistoric Europe north of the Pyrenees and the Alps between the end of the last ice-age and the Indo-Europeanization of most of the Continent. Languages belonging to two families are identified: the Old European languages belonging to the Vasconic family, the only surviving member of which is Basque; and the Atlantic languages belonging to the Hamito-Semitic family of which many members survive in North Africa and the Middle East.
Substrates primarily affect the structure of their superstrates, less so the lexicon, except for the toponymic sublexicon. Vasconic languages are assumed to have been substrata in the entire area, and it is shown with reference to a number of appellative loan-words and a sizable number of toponyms that the assumption is likely to be true. For the British Isles it has long been known that whatever went before, their languages were Hamito-Semitic at the time when the Celtic languages intruded from the Continent; the substratal influence is seen in the structural transformation of Insular Celtic into a syntactic type resembling that of Hamito-Semitic more than typical Indo-European. Reference is made to two British toponyms that had shortly before been interpreted as Semitic in origin, Uist and The Solent.
Superstrates primarily affect the lexicon of their substrates, less so their structure. Hamito-Semitic languages are assumed to have been superstrata to very early Germanic, and it is shown with reference to a sizable number of appellative loan-words that the assumption may be true.
The emphasis in the paper is on the etymologies, each of which is treated in a numbered section of its own. Some of these are traditional, even though they are not normally cited in modern etymological dictionaries; others are here proposed for the first time. As is unavoidable and indeed customary in etymology, all proposals are not of the same stringency. Those made for the following items may be among the more promising ones; the English form is cited where available.
Old European (Vasconic) loan-words: silver, iron, Gm. Halde 'sloping ground, hillock', hook, callow, adze, Gm. Garbe 'sheaf', Gm. Harn 'urine', shank, Gm. Latte, Laden 'board', to stink.
Atlantic (Semitic) loan-words: steer, horn, goat, OE eofur 'male pig', crab, earth, harvest, harp, yard/garden, town, seven, moon, to mete 'measure', hate.
Taking as a starting point the assumption of a toponymic origin of several population names, the paper suggests a Vasconic etymology for the name of the Bavarian people. There exist two series of name forms, short ones such as Peigira, báioras,
The names Gm. Eisvogel "ice-bird" and OE
Vasconic etymologies are suggested for the unexplained West Indo-European words reflected in Engl. silver, ice, salamander, Gm. Fliese, Middle Ir. aindir, Gr. Kassándra, Androméda, Atlantic etymologies for those reflected in Engl. fright, star, to wake, to ward, ear. Cultural differences between the early Indo-Europeans, the Vascons, and the Atlantic peoples are indicated by this loan vocabulary. Some names of undomesticated animals, in particular salamander (from Lat. salamandra, Gr. salamándra) are proposed to be indicative of Vasconic substratal influence: Old European +salam(a) + and(e)ra "water-woman"; cp. Bq. andere 'woman', the Old European hydronymic root sal- in river names such as Sala, Salia, Salma, Salmanca, Salona, and Salica, and the regional Bq. urandra (i.e. ur + andra) 'salamander', literally "water-lady". The superstratal influence of the prehistoric Atlantic seafarers manifests itself e.g. in the star word (cf. OHG sterno, Lat.
The Picts of Britannic prehistory and the Vanir of Germanic mythology contribute to the theory of an Atlantic, i.e. Hamito-Semitic origin of the Megalithic culture. The matriliny of both the Picts and the Vanir points neither to an Indo-European nor to a Vasconic source but makes an Atlantic basis plausible. This view is supported (1) by the Pictish name Nehton and its phonological correspondent Neptune, god of the sea and, identified with the Greek Poseidon, according to Plato founder of the Atlantic empires, (2) by the Old Gaelic word maqq 'son', which is otherwise only attested in Germanic, e.g. as Goth. magus 'son (of maternal lineage)', (3) by Pictish art and Northumbrian art which has been apparently influenced by it, both showing stylistic connections with the art of the Near East, and (4) by the tale of Tristan, the Pictish Drust, the Welsh Drystan son of Tallwch, lover of Essylt, the wife of his uncle March son of Meirchiaw, protagonists of a romance featuring an exceedingly non-Indo-European adulteress.
The Germanic Vanir are recognized not merely as fertility deities but as a fully functional family of gods and goddesses. Their maritime (Mediterranean) and Semitic origin is shown by a number of features, chief among them the following: (1) Njorðr's residence Nóatún 'Ship-Town', (2) Freyr's ship Skíðblaðnir, (3) marriages between sisters and brothers such as Njorðr's earlier marriage, (4) Freyja's and Freyr's incestual relationship (as insinuated by Loki), (5) Freyja's harnessed team of "cats" (i.e. lions), (6) the notion of dying gods (also on the Æsir side, where the most Vanir-like Baldr resembles the Semitic god Baal, both in function and in the form of his name), (7) Freyja's equivalence with the Babylonian goddess
For the etymologies of (1) the name of the Spanish town of Castalla whose drinking water is supplied by a spring at the foot of a mountain, (2) the name of the Castalia spring in Greece, and (3) the name of the Gastein (now Gasteiner Ache), a river fed by twenty-one radioactive hot springs in the Austrian spa of Gastein (now Badgastein), an Old European root +kast- 'spring, source', specifically 'mountain spring', is proposed. The same root is suggested to be part of the three occurrences of the expression kastri in the Rhætian inscriptions of Steinberg in Tyrol, tentatively interpreted by one investigator as 'god of the spring', a meaning which fits the location of the inscription, a mountain cave with two springs issuing good drinking water in an environment with an otherwise comparatively difficult water supply. The Old European root +kast- has no Indo-European connections. Since Basque lacks initial k-, the closest words are gazte 'young', also 'young boy or girl', azte 'growth' derived from (h)azi- 'to generate, nourish, grow', and (h)aste 'beginning, origin, derivation, descent' from (h)asi 'to begin', of which at least the last is also semantically close to a word meaning 'spring, source'. The recurring esi, the most frequent sequence of the Steinberg inscriptions, identified as possibly meaning 'water', could be an inflected form related to Bq. iz- 'water'. The inscriptions taken together thus give the impression of fragments of an incantation, prayer, or spell addressed to the spring or its deity. In the closing section of the paper, the possibility of a relation between Rhætian and Basque is discussed with reference to syntactic, morphological, phonological, and lexical parallels.
Traditionally, Engl. knife and related Germanic words - Late OE
Ten reasons are given why this assumed itinary is wrong, among them the facts (1) that in the Middle Ages new cultural objects and their names do not travel from north to south but from south to north, (2) that the implied development of a monosyllabic simplex
The opposite route is then proposed, starting with a Basque compound, possibly formed of Latin-derived Bq. kana 'reed pipe, cane' and bedoi 'pruning knife' in Gascony, and continuing through the Romance languages including Old French, where a doublet was formed by dropping the apparent diminutive suffix -et, and on into the Continental, Insular, and Scandinavian Germanic languages with different forms and meanings, until it reached its end-point in Norwegian Lappish.
The paper attempts to draw a picture of the linguistic prehistory of Europe north of the Pyrenees and the Alps. Languages of three families are assumed: Vasconic, Atlantic (Hamito-Semitic), and Indo-European. The origins of the peoples bringing those languages are discussed on the basis of linguistic, mythological, and genetic evidence.
It is argued that the Vascons originated in southern France, from where they spread north after the end of the last ice-age. The Vascons gave rise to the Old European hydronymy. Atlantic colonizers from the western Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic regions occupied the European Atlantic coast, the isles, and the river basins from about 5000 B.C. onward. They were cattle-breeders and experts in orcharding (apples), and brought the Megalithic culture to Europe. The Indo-Europeans originated in the Carpathian Basin. Beginning to spread in the middle of the 6th millennium, they brought agriculture to central, western, north-eastern, and northern Europe, militarizing and spreading in all southerly directions from the 4th millennium onward.
The linguistic analysis focuses on the stratal asymmetries of the languages involved and on loan-words, toponyms and structural peculiarities reflecting these asymmetries. Among the latter, the Vasconic way of counting by steps of twenty rather than ten is identified in Romance, Celtic, and Germanic, and the Semitic verbal ablaut in the systematization and functionalization of the inherited Indo-European ablaut of Germanic.
As mythological evidence of Atlantic influence, the several Semitic features often observed in Germanic religion are referred to.
Genetic evidence is cited which connects the Europeans north of the Pyrenees and the Alps with the Basques and explains the fading of Basque genetic properties from west to east with the intrusion of a different population, presumably the Indo-Europeans, in the opposite direction. More specifically, genetic evidence (blood group zero versus blood group A) shows that in Bavaria the Basque component is stronger south of the Danube than north of it, the river forming a natural barrier against intrusions from the north; the recessive nature of the Basque component shows once more in the fact that south of the Danube it is strongest in Alpine valleys and north of the Danube in mountainous regions, both regions being typical areas of retreat.
The paper ends with a plea for a stronger consideration of possible external influences in the study of the Western Indo-European languages. In the appendix, two new Semitic etymologies for hoof and for apple are offered.
Bid-/Bed- (as in Gm. Bitburg, Engl. Bedford) is frequent in European settlement names. Pit- (as in Pitbladdo, Pitlochry) is even more frequent but is limited to an area of Northern Scotland, the former Pictland. The structures these two name elements enter into are quite different: In Bid-/Bed-X names, Bid-/Bed- is the specifier and X is the head (or generic), in Pit-X names, Pit- is head (generic) and X is specifier. Both name elements lack plausible Indo-European etymologies.
The geographic and the structural differences suggest that Bid-/Bed- and Pit- have different sources. The Bid-/Bed- names are usually found near, or rather, on old and important roads. Bid-/Bed- is therefore assumed to derive from the same Vasconic etymon as Bq. bide 'road'. The fact that in, and close to, the Basque country settlement names such as Bidache have been so explained lends support to this interpretation.
Pit- in Pit- names is seen by specialists as a Pictish word meaning 'a parcel of land or farmland' and to have had "some fiscal and administrative meaning, now lost, within the Pictish kingdom". It is here interpreted as an Atlantic loan-word having close relatives in several Hamito-Semitic languages, e.g. Akkad. pittu 'administrative district', while Gael. cuid 'portion', Welsh peth 'thing', Bret. pez 'piece', and Gaul. *petia are explained as loan-words from Pictish, and Vulgar Lat. petia (terrae) 'a parcel (of land)' - whence Fr. pièce and thus Engl. piece - as a loan-word from Gaulish.
These interpretations fit into the theory that the Old European languages were Vasconic, i.e. related to Basque, and the Atlantic languages were closely related to Semitic.
While certain place-names in the British Isles were undoubtedly coined during the last three thousand years and may therefore, in principle, be traced to the Celtic, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, Norman French, and Norse languages spoken there during this span of time, it is equally clear that a great many, perhaps even more names were given in the four or more millennia before the first Indo-Europeans set foot on the Isles. Many of the toponyms, for which no plausible etymologies have been found, plus quite a few of those which were misinterpreted by folk etymology either by the inhabitants or by toponomasts, must therefore be assumed to date from those earlier millennia and therefore to be non-Indo-European. It is argued that those earliest names were given by speakers of Old European and Atlantic languages, where these languages were related to Basque und to Semitic, respectively.
Ancient names are often integrated into a new language by head renewal, the replacement or addition of a constructional head, where the expression supplied is productive in the language, while the old toponym adopts the grammatical role of specifier to the new head. The position of the new head is indicative of the construction type of the language. The German hydronym Chiemsee, for instance, points to the prespecifying (head-final) Old High German syntactic construction, while the Modern English integration of the name as Lake Chiemsee reflects a postspecifying (head-initial) construction type. As the last example shows, the new head sometimes expresses meaning components of, or even the same meaning as, the original name, albeit in a different language. As an example of this, the settlement name Arundel is discussed at some length. It is interpreted as an original Vasconic name +Arana 'The Valley' (cf. Bq. aran 'valley'), integrated into Anglo-Saxon with a new head -del(l) originally meaning the same thing. The English name is thus equivalent to that of the Val d'Aran valley in the Pyrenees, though expressed in a different construction type.
Other names interpreted as Vasconic in origin are that of the Thames, viz. +Tam-is-a, cf. Bq. iz- '(body of) water', and certain names formed with Bid-/Bed- (Bq. bide 'road') plus a new head, e.g. Bedford.
As an example of an Atlantic name, that of the Scilly Islands (ca. 400 Sylinancim, ca. 1120 Sully, 1186 Sullia), "a pre-English name of doubtful etymology", is, in harmony with the older etymology of The Solent between the coast of England and the Isle of Wight, derived from the Semitic root s-l-c- 'rock, cliff', more specifically, with Pliny's Silumnus, Silimnus, from the Semitic plural +s-l-c-m (+Sulcim) 'rocks, cliffs' - a fitting designation for those rocky islands.
Other Atlantic names discussed are that of the Tay (in Pictland) and that of the Taw (in England), the Pit- names of Pictland, that of the Hebrides (Ptolemy's Aiboûdai) and finally a possible earlier name of the Shetland Islands (Aemodae).
This paper, which derives from a lecture given in memory of Johannes Hubschmid at the University of Heidelberg on 18 January 1996 and is here published for the first time, gives an overview of the pre-Indo-European substrates and superstrates in Central, Western, and Northern Europe. Unexplained toponyms all over the area, especially Krahe's Old European hydronymy, suggest that the West Indo-European languages had contact with a widespread non-Indo-European substratum; and numerous ordinary Germanic words lacking plausible Indo-European etymologies suggest that the early Germanic population underwent contact with a regional non-Indo-European superstratum. Both suggestions are founded on general rules of language contact theory.
The Old European substrate is discussed with reference to Hans Krahe's theory. It is concluded that the structure of his Old European hydronyms is non-Indo-European. The dominant vowel a, the great amount of names starting with vowels, the agglutinative word structure, the predominant termination -a, and initial accent of hydronyms point to another language family, which is identified as Vasconic, of which the only present-day survivor is Basque.
Traces of substratal Vasconic influence in the West Indo-European languages are the shift to initial word-accent in early Italic, Celtic, and Germanic, the more or less systematic West Indo-European remains of vigesimal counting, and words permitting Vasconic etymologies. Of the latter, reflexes of a Vasconic word for '(young) woman, lady', preserved in Bq. andere, are cited in Celtic, Greek, the Romance languages, and German. Bq. handi 'big' and Lat. grandi- 'big' are both derived from a Vasconic word +grandi- 'big', the Latin word being a prehistoric substratal borrowing. The origin of the Vasconic substratum is discussed at length.
An Atlantic substrate of the insular Celtic languages related to Semitic was first demonstrated about a century ago and further supported by several authors since then. A recent attempt to question this explanation is shown to run counter to general principles of language contact. Semitic loan-words in West Indo-European, especially in Germanic, are interpreted as traces of Semitic influence, superstratal in the case of Germanic, exerted along the Atlantic littoral rather than in the East. The West Indo-European apple word and the Romance and Germanic baron word are given special attention.
The extraordinary systematization and functionalization of the inherited Indo-European verbal ablaut in Germanic is explained as Semitic influence, ablaut being even more strongly developed in the Semitic languages. This explanation fits well with the old observation that a striking number of Germanic strong verbs have no Indo-European etymology, among them nearly two dozen simplex verbs that contain the consonant +p of the so-called "labial gap" and are therefore certain to be loan-words.
The paper begins with an introduction in which the theory of the languages of prehistoric Europe north of the major mountain ranges, the Pyrenees and the Alps, is sketched: the Old European languages identified as Vasconic, i.e. as related to Basque; the Atlantic languages identified as Semitidic, i.e. as Hamito-Semitic but most closely related to Semitic; and Indo-European. The patchwork theory according to which "the [invading] Indo-Europeans found ... a patchwork of languages, large and small, some related, some not, resulting from previous millennia of settlement, displacement and language shift, just like anywhere else" is criticized.
The first major part, after summarizing some of the traces of the assumed Vasconic substratum in the West Indo-European languages, viz. the shift to initial word-accent and the vigesimal system, concentrates on reflexes of a Vasconic word for '(young) woman, lady', preserved as Bq. andere, in several Indo-European languages. It pays much attention to the female name Andriosoi in a Greek vase painting, which is derived from PVasc. +andere+
After reviewing some Indo-European words that have been given Semitic etymologies, the second major part of the paper concentrates on the new Semitic etymology of the West Indo-European apple word, assumed to be the same as Hamito-Semit.
Finally, the extraordinary importance of apples in Western civilization is underlined by analysing four mythical settings as having the same Semitic basis: the Garden of Eden as described in the Old Testament (and similar traditions in the Near East); the Garden of the Hesperides where a serpent keeps watch over the golden apples; the Celtic Avalon, viz. Insula Avallonis or Insula Pomorum, 'Island of Apple Trees', where the wounded King Arthur was taken care of by nine women versed in magic; and the Germanic orchard of Glæsisvellir with the beautiful daughter of King Guðmundr and her sisters, complemented by the myth of the apples of the goddess Iðunn which preserve the health and even the eternal youth of the Germanic gods.
The paper begins with a characterization of the contact-theoretical concepts of substrate and superstrate and of the typical effects substrates and superstrates exert on their contact languages: Substrates mostly influence the structure of their contact languages (notably in the domains of phonology and syntax), while superstrates mostly influence the lexicon of their contact languages (notably in the fields of warfare, law, and communal life). English is cited as an example: The Insular Celtic substratum structurally transformed Anglo-Saxon more to resemble Insular Celtic in a number of ways, and the Norman-French superstrate transformed the Germanic Anglo-Saxon lexicon into that of Romanized English. By contrast, lexical Celtic influences and structural Norman-French influences are inconspicuous. Turning to the Vasconic substrate of all western Indo-European languages and to the Semitidic superstrate of Germanic assumed in earlier work, the consequence is that there should not be many Vasconic loan-words in Germanic but a considerable number of Semitic loan-words.
The latter consequence is illustrated in the bulk of the paper with a number of new Semitic etymologies for Germanic words lacking plausible Indo-European connections. The following examples are discussed: West and North Gmc.
It is proposed that all these go back to a Semitic root family plC (and the related prC - C: a range of different consonants) with its basic meaning 'to divide'. In particular, the root form
At least one third, perhaps more than half of the Germanic vocabulary has no reliable etymology. Since influences from two language families, Vasconic and Semitic, have been identified, it is concluded that the debate can no longer be whether but has to be how exactly and in what measure Germanic and the other West Indo-European languages have been influenced by prehistoric non-Indo-European contact languages.
It is often overlooked in etymology that the observed constraints of a language have a prehistory and need not always have been the same. As a matter of fact, it can be learned from languages with a long known history that constraints may develop within a few centuries. Therefore, the constraints against word-initial consonant clusters, against word-initial r-, against word-initial d-, and against w observable in historical Basque must not be assumed to have always existed in the language. On the contrary, etymologists must work with the assumption of prehistoric stages of Basque in which these constraints were not yet operative.
The consequent research strategy leads to a number of new Vasconic etymologies for hitherto poorly explained words in the western Indo-European languages (in a wider sense, including Greek). E.g., Lat. grandi- 'big' obviously cannot be derived from Bq. (h)andi 'big', nor can Bq. (h)andi reflect as a loan-word Lat. grandi- because as such the Basque word would have to have the shape *garandi (with echo anaptyxis), according to the rules of loan-word adaptation in Basque. However, both Lat. grandi- and Bq. (h)andi may reflect a Vasconic etymon, the former as a prehistoric loan-word, the latter as a result of the developing constraints: PVasc. +grandi- -> Lat. grandi- (grandis, grande etc.); PVasc. +grandi- > Pre-Bq. +randi- (no #CC-!) > Bq. handi, andi (no #r-!). Likewise, Gr. dorkás 'deer, gazelle' and Bq. orkatz 'deer, Pyrenean chamois' may both reflect the same Proto-Vasconic etymon, the latter with loss of word-initial d- as this constraint developed.
Words connected in this way are: OIr. fás (Lat.
The bee words (root +bi- or *bhi- with various suffixes) only occur in the north-west Indo-European languages (Germanic, Balto-Slavic, Celtic), the Imme word (NHG Imme 'bee'), OHG imbi, OE ymbe '[swarm of] bees' only in the West Germanic languages. They are thus likely to be loan-words. Since the domestication of the honey-bee was first achieved in Ancient Egypt and since there are other indications of a prehistoric colonization of the European Atlantic littoral by Hamito-Semitic peoples, the bee words are explained by means of borrowed Egypt. bj-t 'honey-bee' (also 'honey') and the Imme word as a compound +HVm+bi- (> imbi-) of Semit. +HVm- 'people' and the bee root +bi-. The appendix offers an etymology of Lat. api-s 'bee' as borrowed Egypt. cfj 'bee' (cfj n bjt 'honey-bee').
Earlier interpretations of the name Éire (OIr. Ériu, older
For a word in a contemporary language to qualify as a possible loan-word from the extinct Rhætian language it must ideally satisfy the following three conditions: (1) regionality, i.e. the word must be limited to the area of the old Alpine Rhætia; (2) cultural specificity, i.e. the word must relate to the culture of the old Rhætia; (3) lack of etymology, i.e. the word must lack a plausible etymology in those Indo-European languages that supplanted Rhætian. For such a word to be able to support the hypothesis that Rhætian, for which no filiation has been reliably determined, is a Vasconic language, it would have to satisfy a further condition, (4) Vasconicity, i.e. the word must be interpretable as a loan-word from a language related to Basque.
It is shown in the paper that the Alpine German word Senne 'Alpine cow-keeper' fulfills all four conditions, so that Senne is likely to be a Rhætian loan-word and ultimately a Vasconic word. Its Vasconicity is demonstrated by basing it, as an agent noun, on a reconstructable Vasconic word +seNe 'milk' preserved in Bq. ezne, High Navarrese dialect esene 'milk', Bq. zenbera 'pot cheese' (formed with Bq. bera 'soft'). This etymology remains unaffected if Rhætian is itself filiated differently; Senne would in this case be a substratal Vasconic word passed through Rhætian into Alpine German.
The appendix offers a Vasconic etymology for Lat.
Various concepts of folk-etymology are analyzed and criticized. A proposal is made which leaves the designation Volksetymologie, coined by J. A. Schmeller and introduced as a scientific term by E. Förstemann, untouched but distinguishes two kinds: folk-etymology as language acquisition, viz. as erroneous word association in the ordinary subconscious process of language learning, and folk-etymology as naive mistaken etymology, etymology understood as the conscious word explanation practised by laymen and scholars. Interpretations of selected toponyms, mostly from Bavaria, are investigated in the light of this critique, among them names such as Bad Kissingen, Füssen, Kühbach, Eisbach, Auerberg, Sigmaringen, Germering, Bamberg, Arnstein, and Ebersberg. Analyses and new proposals are submitted in an examination of the extent to which a non-folk-etymological interpretation of place-names is possible.
Several Indo-European words for the concepts of evening and west display striking phonological differences: Gk. hésperos, Lat. vesper 'evening', OIr. fescor 'evening', Cymr. ucher, MCymr. gosper, gosber 'evening', Lith. vãkaras 'evening', pl.
If a single source is to be reconstructed for this multitude of loan forms, something resembling +weskwer- or +weskwar- may be the best candidate. It is suggested in the paper that this source is the same as euskera/euskara, the Basques' name for themselves, their land, and their language, and that this term was understood by the West Indo-Europeans as the word for the people, the land and the language of the West, i.e. the Occident or (in German) Abendland. For the Greek name of Europe,
The following additional etymologies are proposed as the paper develops: a Vasconic etymology for PGmc. +wahsa- (OE weax, Engl. wax, Gm. Wachs, etc.), Lith.
The oldest European toponyms were coined by prehistoric European peoples. The name of the German town of Ebersberg is assumed to contain such an old toponym (plus Gm. Berg 'mountain'). Traditional interpretations of Ebersberg as 'boar mountain' or 'Eberhard's mountain' are rejected as folk etymologies. Instead, a recent proposal relating the name of the town to that of its river, the Ebrach, is accepted. On the assumption that the prehistoric river name was +Ebara, and the settlement was named after this river, the German names are reconstructed as Germanizations by means of OHG aha 'stream' and OHG berg 'mountain', respectively: +Ebara + -aha-> +Ebaraha (attested: Eparaha) > Ebrach; +Ebara + -es-berg -> +Ebaresberg (attested: Eparesberg) > Ebersberg.
While the numerous German river and settlement names containing Eber- are traditionally interpreted as containing the noun Eber 'boar', a variety of different interpretations have been given for similar French toponyms such as Averdon (older Everdunum), Avrolles (Eburobriga, Evrola), Évricourt (Ebraldocurte), Évry (Evriacum), Ivry-la-Bataille (castrum Ibreicense, Ebrense), Ibarolle (Yvarola), for the obvious reason that 'boar' in French is nothing similar to Eber but sanglier. For the name of the Ibar river of the Kossovo not even a folk etymology is available.
On the basis of the theory of a prehistoric Vasconic substrate in Central Europe, a Vasconic etymon +Ibara is proposed as underlying all these names (cf. Bq. ibara 'valley, estuary'), a variant of Bq. ibai 'river'. The distribution of this root as well as that of other Vasconic roots (in Ar(e)n-, Is/Eis-, Ur/Aur- names), all outreaching today's Basque region, is assumed to correspond to the large area of a prehistoric Vasconic expansion: After the last ice-age, the Vascons spread from southern France to almost all of Europe north of the Alps, where they were subsequently submerged by Indo-Europeans immigrating from the south-east of the continent. This linguistic reconstruction of European prehistory coincides with results of genetic research, such as the differential distribution of the negative rhesus factor (Rh-) and of the '0' blood group in western, central, and northern Europe.
The paper begins with a critical appraisal of Hans Krahe's theory of the Old European hydronymy. Krahe's comparative methodology is accepted, his semantic rule that the more frequent a hydronymical root the more general is its meaning, is embraced and applied to all toponyms. But his contention that the Old European hydronymy is Indo-European is challenged with a list of arguments which together favor a Vasconic interpretation.
By way of exemplification the Vasconic hydronymical roots is- and ur- meaning '(body of) water' are studied both in river names as well as other toponyms known often to encapsulate hydronymical elements. In particular, the names of the French city of Yssingeaux and of the Bavarian village of Eisolzried are analyzed as containing is- as well as another Vasconic toponymical element +alde 'slope', fitting the locations. Bq. -alde may also occur as a termination of river names, as in Rio Izalde south of Bilbao. The same termination is recognized in the German river-names Nagold, Singold, and Onolzbach (< Onoltespah < +An-alde plus Germanizing -es-bach), and in the French toponym Évricourt < Ebraldocurte < +Ibar-alde (Romanized with -o-cortem), cf. Bq. ibar 'valley, [mouth of a] river'. The hydronymic ur- is seen in Germany in river-names and settlement names such as Ur-ach and Aur-ach (Germanized with -ach 'river') and in Auerberg 'water mountain', name of a mountain characterized by an abundance of water. The toponymical Vasc. aran 'valley' (cf. Bq. aran 'valley') is used to show that "nationalizing" additions to an old name often express the same meaning, here 'valley': Val d'Aran in the Pyrenees, Arundel in England, Arendal in Norway, Ahrntal in Tyrol, Arntal in Germany (several).
Two new etymologies are discussed in greater detail: (1) The toponymical root kan- of the names of several settlements characterized by mountains, such as French Cannes, Le Cannet-du-Luc, Cannet, Chanousse, and Italian Canossa, is explained by means of Bq. gain, gan, gañ 'height, summit'. (2) The toponymical root suk- of Le Suquet, name of the hill at the foot of which Cannes is located, of Les Sucs, name of the hills around Yssingeaux, and of several settlement names is connected with the root of the name of the Basque village of Succos and with Prov. suc 'head', making Succos a parallel of the better known Bizkarosse (with Bq. bizkar 'hillock') and of the above-mentioned Chanousse/Canossa, Bq. -oz being a frequent place-name termination.
European relics of the Vasconic way of counting in twenties as well as certain findings of anthropological genetics are referred to in support of these Vasconic reconstructions of river and settlement names.
Last update: 24.07.2008